How an anthill is arranged, every lover of nature knows, as well as schoolchildren who carefully listen to the teacher. Scientists - myrmecologists are engaged in a thorough study of the structure. A single ant seems to be the simplest creature. However, looking at their life inside the anthill, you can see the opposite.
The appearance of the ant house
Of what ants they build an anthill, you can see it outside - dry twigs, sticks, blade of grass, leaves, ground chests, moss, etc.construction materials that are able to bring hardworking insects.
Above the house looks like a cone-shaped mound with small holes - entrances. This form allows the anthill to warm up well in the sun, do not get wet in the rain, get oxygen.
An anthill rises above the grass so that the surrounding vegetation does not overlap the sun's rays. Over the years, it is built up to several meters in height. Droplets of rain, falling on a numerous layer of sticks, twigs, leaves, roll down, do not penetrate inside. Open entrances, guarded by a large army of soldiers, serve as ventilation shafts through which air constantly circulates.
The construction of the anthill insects start from birth. Responsibilities are assigned to workers. Female queen engaged exclusively procreationraising young stock. An anthill with ants is a whole civilization divided into castes. All residents are biological relatives. Every year the height of the anthill increases.
Scientists recorded in the Tomsk region the largest structure - 3 m in height,5 m in diameter. Presumably built an anthill 20 years.
An anthill from the inside is much more interesting. It amazes with the efficient work of the builders, reasonableness, ingenuity and tolerance. Inside the anthill looks like a set of moves, exits, all kinds of cameras.
The structure goes underground, is divided into 2 parts, contains a whole colony of residents.
- In the upper tier, insects spend most of their time, living in the warm season. Chambers are well warmed up, ideal conditions for breeding offspring are provided.
- The lower part has similar structures, goes underground by 1-2 meters. There insects overwinter, wait out the cold days, add food supplies.
Each of these parts is divided into cameras that perform their functions.
- The room of the queen. The uterus lives in it, lays eggs. It is cared for by working ants who help lay eggs.
- Room for eggs. Here the ants demolish eggs, monitor the provision of proper conditions.
- The room for the larvae. Hatching ants are worm-shaped, distinguished by particular voracity. They are placed in one chamber for several pieces. Provide food.
- Luggage storage products. Separately for seeds, seeds, aphids, parts of other insects.
- Garbage warehouse.
- Tombs for the dead ants.
- Room for wintering, where insects in a state of rest wait out the cold.
The chambers are interconnected by numerous passages, there are several exits carefully guarded by soldiers. With the approach of danger, the onset of cold weather, the openings of the anthill are closed. The photo in a section of a wonderful structure is shown below.
Interesting life inside
From the very birth, division into castes takes place.
- Most of the family - working ants. One half provides coziness, comfort inside the building, the other - brings food from the external environment, is engaged in the construction of the house outside.
- At the head of the hierarchy is the female, which is also called the queen, the queen. Having fertilized once at a young age, gives birth to all his long life. Finds a place for the future of the anthill. For 14 days, full-fledged ants appear from the eggs, mainly the working clan. Adopted for the structure.
- A small part of the society - young males. Their fate is not so happy.After fertilization, young females die within 2 weeks.
Each ant has its own individual smell. They differ in specific aroma and all residents of a single anthill. The smell of society distinguishes its inhabitants from others. With the help of specific flavors they report about finding food, dangers, find sexually opposite individuals for fertilization.
In ant society there are more than a dozen “professions”:
- invading warriors;
- guard soldiers;
- shepherds, milkers;
- guards of food, nectar;
- the midwife
Ants contain ants in the anthill on mutually beneficial terms. Provide her with food, she, eating plants, allocates special sweet substance. Ants specifically tickle an insect to have more substances. This is the best for them delicacy, as for a person to arrange a feast with all sorts of goodies. Responsibilities are assigned to shepherds, milkers.
Life in the anthill lasts for years. In the presence of the threat of landslides, damage, the family of ants proceeds to the construction of another housing in the immediate vicinity, in order to more conveniently drag stocks, eggs, and larvae.
The device of an anthill resembles a big city with a developed civilization, division into societies, a clear distribution of responsibilities. A simple structure from the outside is the hardest structure inside.