Description and photos of Kazakhstan spiders
The development of mountain tourism in Kazakhstan has led to the fact that there began to come people who previously knew nothing about this country. The sites of travel agencies will tell about the charms and beauties of the Kazakh mountains. But the dangers are often attached to the beauties. The worst of them are those that can not be checked or envisaged.Such unintended hazards include snakes and spiders in Kazakhstan, because they are living creatures. They may move and end up in an unforeseen place. Including, in a tourist tent.
Snakes try to avoid people, most spiders do not leave their nests (but no one knows where the next arthropod will decide to settle), but spiders like to travel. The latter include solpugi and scorpions. All poisonous spiders and arachnids in Kazakhstan have a rather characteristic appearance. Photos and descriptions are usually sufficient to recognize the danger in a “personal” meeting.
There are few poisonous spider species in Kazakhstan compared to Australia. But in it almost all the dangerous spiders of Europe "gathered":
- thirteen karakurt;
- Karakurt Dahl;
- white karakurt;
- heiracantium yellow;
On a note!
In addition to these species, harmless racehorses, crosses, funnel spiders and many others live in the country. Invertebrates in Kazakhstan are poorly understood and the exact number of spiders is unknown.
Climate nuances and spider ranges
Kazakhstan is located in the temperate zone, but due to the peculiarities of the relief, the climate in its different parts ranges from subtropical, similar to Crimean, to cold, similar to northern Yakutia.The distribution of Kazakhstani spiders depends on the level of winter temperature.
Inhabits the desert zone, which occupies almost the whole of South Kazakhstan and part of Central. A medium sized animal with a strong sexual demorphism. The size of the male is about 5 mm and this animal is absolutely safe for humans.
The female is a serious opponent not only for her prey. The main Kazakh cattle are very sensitive to the poison of this arthropod, 2 cm in size: camels and horses.
Cows and sheep are resistant to karakurt poison.
Karakurt species Latrodectus tredecimguttatus - black spider with red or whitish spots on the abdomen. Due to the number of spots, this species is called “thirteen-point”. Red spots can be outlined with a white stripe and then look convex. Abdomen spherical, much larger than cephalothorax. There are no bristles on the animal, so it looks brilliant.
Bite karakurt leads to severe pain spasms throughout the body. All signs of severe general poisoning are also present. In the later stages of arousal is replaced by depression. Sometimes it ends with the death of the victim. To counteract the poison using counter-ancillary serum.
The Latin name is Latrodectus dahli.Difference from the previous type of karakurt - pure black color without any inclusions. Otherwise, both species of these spiders are identical.
They build nests at the base of shrubs, braiding them randomly arranged threads. In the desert they prefer to hide in the shade of animals. Sometimes even coexist peacefully with the real owner of the shelter.
On a note!
Thirteen-point and karakurt Dahl can interbreed with each other, giving intermediate offspring. This makes it difficult for arachnologists to identify a particular individual, but for the average tourist it does not matter. It is enough to remember that spiders with red spots and pure black - karakurt.
The only "blond" among poisonous spiders in Kazakhstan, although its range extends throughout Central Asia and the Middle East, capturing Russia and North Africa. It is more adapted to cold weather than black karakurt. Habitat chooses in the steppe and desert zones, so it can be found not only next to the black counterparts, but also in Western Kazakhstan.
The habits are similar to other spiders of the black widows.Appearance differs from karakurt Dahl only in color. White karakurt not just got this name. His belly is completely white. The cephalothorax is also devoid of pigment and, due to the characteristics of the chitinous integument, has a light brown color. Due to the lack of pigment, the cephalothorax looks translucent.
On a note!
Since this is the least poisonous species, it is not dangerous for an adult. But the effect of poison is similar to the effect of black karakurt toxins. With a weakened body, even white poison can lead to death. Such cases were recorded in the elderly and children.
The second name of the spider is "yellow sac". The adjective "yellow" heirakantium received because of its dirty yellow color. Due to this color, it is invisible against the background of withered grass in the steppe. This spider prefers dry regions and is distributed from Central Asia to Central Europe. Today he began to penetrate into more northern and colder areas. The range is expanding due to climate change, as the spider prefers relatively hot regions. In Kazakhstan, it can be found everywhere except in Eastern Kazakhstan, where there are very severe winters.
On a note!
Heiracantium spins webs on steppe grasses. The body length of a spider is 1.5 cm. Its prey is an agricultural pest with hard chitin shells. Because of this, the spider's chelicera are adapted to pierce hard covers, and human skin is not an obstacle for them.
By the effectiveness of the poison and the pain of the bite, this yellow spider is equal to the wasp. The bite does not cause serious consequences, although the pain and swelling persist for several hours.
The main poisonous spiders of East Kazakhstan are tarantulas. Spider-wolves, which include tarantulas, like their mammal "namesake" adapted to life in all conditions. Even the winters of East Kazakhstan with their -50 ° C tarantulas do not frighten. Spiders more dangerous to humans prefer warm places.
The most numerous species not only in the eastern part, but also in the whole country is the South Russian tarantula. Due to the very favorable conditions for life in summer in Kazakhstan, this species grows 2 times larger than usual and can reach 5 cm. The color of these spiders can be greenish-gray, gray or yellow-gray.
On a note!
Tarantulas are real earth spiders that build their burrows on their own. They dig deep vertical "wells" in which they await production.The probability of accidentally disturbing a tarantula, unlike karakurt, is very small. But tarantulas hunt at night and in search of prey can crawl into the tent.
They do not like to settle only in the forest. Occur in forest-steppe, steppe, semi-desert and desert areas. That is, throughout the territory of Kazakhstan.
Central Asian Solpuga
Karakurt is not the only danger in Kazakhstan. In addition to spiders there are solpugs (phalanges). These are arachnids belonging to the order of phalanges. Now members of the detachment are called solpugs, so as not to be confused with Phalangida consonant phalanges, spider-like, better known as haymakers (kosinozhki).
Although from a biological point of view, the solpuga does not refer to real spiders, but the name of the phalanx - the spider in Kazakhstan has been used since ancient times. Often in Central Asia it is called the camel spider.
Central Asian solpuga grows up to 7 cm. Color camouflage: gray-yellow. This is a night hunter who can crawl into a dwelling at night. Solpugu differs from spiders not only in the absence of spider and poisonous glands. She has 2 pairs of chews with teeth instead of one pair of chelicera and 5 pairs of walking legs versus 4 of the spider.
Small solpugi man is not dangerous, because they can not bite the skin.The large ones can infect with a bite with sepsis, as the decaying pieces of the flesh of the previous victim are left on the mandibles.