Opistorchis in adults: symptoms and treatment
- 1 Source of infection
- 2 Infection mechanism
- 3 Clinical picture and complications
- 4 Traditional treatment methods
- 5 Homemade recipes from opisthorchiasis
- 6 Prevention
Symptoms and treatment of opisthorchiasis in adults should be known to all fish lovers, especially gourmets who use Sliced Planet.This parasitic disease is dangerous for both adults and children. It affects vital organs and systems, causes toxic-allergic reactions and can cause cancer of the liver and primary pancreatic cancer. Opisthorchiasis is characterized by a protracted course with periods of exacerbation, is difficult to treat and causes serious complications of comorbidities.
Source of infection
The causative agent of opisthorchiasis is a flatworm up to 13 mm long and up to 3.5 mm wide. The worm is called opistorch and parasitizes not only in the human body, but also in the body of mammals and animals. If you look at a photo of opistorhas in a person, you can see the suckers on his body. One is located in the mouth, the other on the abdomen. They help the worms to feed and retain.
The parasite reproduces by laying eggs, there are no sexual differences in individuals, they are hermaphroditic. It is impossible to see how the eggs of these worms look like in humans in the feces with the naked eye because of their microscopic size. Get rid of opistorchs is not easy. The high incidence of opisthorchosis is due to the ability of eggs to persist for a long time in adverse conditions. They survive:
- in the feces on the ground in the summer to 1 month;
- on snow cover 3 days;
- in standing water for 1 year and 3 months;
- in the conditions of latrines longer than 7 months.
For the full development of the egg must get into the water and then into the body of the primary intermediate host, usually clams. In their body, the eggs go through a difficult stage of transformation, first into miracidia, then into sporocysts, and finally into readias and cercariae. At one time, the mollusk produces more than 3000 of these larvae.
To continue the cycle, cercariae penetrate into the body of fish from the carp family. There they create a shell around them, turn into metacercaria and mature for another 6 weeks. During this time, a mobile larva is formed inside the cocoon. She lives in the body of a fish, according to various sources, from 1 to 8 years.
On a note!
The life cycle of the causative agent of opisthorchiasis before settlement in the final host lasts up to 4.5 months.
A person becomes ill with opisthorchosis when eating fish infected with metacercariae. Infection contributes to poor heat treatment of the product and non-compliance with sanitary rules during cooking. Most often the disease is triggered by:
- eating poorly roasted and boiled fish;
- the habit of trying raw minced meat;
- lack of marking on cutting boards;
- the inclusion in the diet of raw fish dishes ("heh" and "stroganina");
- poor hand hygiene after cutting carcasses.
Opistorhi in older children and adolescents can be identified after fishing with cooking soup and baking fish. Kids get infected as well as adults through the gastric tract.
After swallowing a metacercaria of opisthorchiasis, it favorably passes through the stomach and enters the duodenum, where the larva destroys the membrane and enters the liver, gallbladder, and sometimes the pancreas.
Clinical picture and complications
Symptoms of opistorhs in adults and children are almost the same. But the degree of their manifestation in older patients is more intense due to the presence of comorbidities. The clinic of opisthorchiasis depends on the form of the course and the duration of infection.
It is characterized by pronounced signs of damage, not only in the area of localization of the parasite, which requires the use of an extended treatment regimen in adults and children.The organs not infected with worms are also involved in the pathological process. This is due to a systemic allergic reaction. Symptoms may manifest as:
- hepatic cholangitis syndrome (pain in the right hypochondrium, jaundice, enlarged liver);
- lesions of the respiratory organs (bronchitis, pneumonia of unknown etiology, asthma, pleurisy);
- pathologies of the digestive tract (enterocolitis, gastritis, duodenitis);
- allergies (urticaria, dermatitis);
- articular and muscular diseases (arthritis, myalgia).
In rare cases, opisthorchosis is accompanied by cardiac dysfunctions. Patients complain of pain behind the sternum and arrhythmia. During auscultation, the heart sounds are muffled and pathological sounds are heard. Acute opisthorchosis occurs with temperature rises to high numbers, sweating and chills.
The duration of the acute period, even with active therapy, can range from 1 month to 9.
Often diagnosed by chance when detecting opistorch eggs in human feces or during examination for liver pathologies. Complaints in patients may be completely absent, which indicates a hidden course and low prevalence of invasion.
But the chronic course is not always asymptomatic.In some cases, patients for years are treated for severe pathologies caused by parasites:
- hepatitis A;
- biliary dyskinesia;
In the human body, the causative agent of opisthorchiasis can live up to 20 years.
If opisthorch eggs are found in the feces during the examination, treatment should be started immediately, regardless of the presence or absence of clinical manifestations of the disease.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in young children are not less bright. Infected child fever, complains of abdominal pain, nausea. Jaundice gradually develops, there may be signs of damage to the locomotor system and heart.
The most dangerous complications of opisthorchiasis are degenerative processes in the liver, which lead to cirrhosis and cancer. If you do not detect the infection in time, you can remain disabled.
Traditional treatment methods
Unlike other worms, these parasites can not be destroyed in one pill. In some cases, the entire course of treatment in a person takes up to 5 weeks, and dispensary observation lasts up to 1 year or longer. The treatment regimen in adults and children is identical. The difference is only in dosages of drugs.
Stage 1 - preparatory
During this period, pathogenetic treatment is carried out for 21 days. Assigned to a diet with the restriction of fat and alcohol, soda, flour dishes. At the same time in the scheme include choleretic, hepatoprotective, enzyme and antihistamines. In a day they perform tubages with the use of mineral waters. If there are signs of poisoning, detoxification therapy is carried out.
Stage 2 - the main
The patient is given specific treatments for worms. For the treatment of opisthorchiasis, the substance Praziguantel is more often used. The drug based on it is called Biltricid. The tool refers to the anthelmintic and a negative effect on all forms of parasites.
It can be taken by patients from 4 years. Biltricid treatment lasts from 1 to 3 days, depending on the location of the worms and the severity of the invasion. The drug is toxic, so the doctor prescribes the dosage in pediatrics. Treatment for adults for three days. Every day you need to drink 25 mg of the drug per kg of body weight.
Judging by the reviews, about half of the patients experience undesirable effects during treatment with Biltricid. Main complaints:
- sleep disorders;
- nausea, vomiting, heartburn;
- dry mouth;
- dyspeptic disorders;
- drowsiness, weakness, dizziness;
- slight fever.
After the end of therapy, side effects disappear without sequela.
It is impossible to treat opistorchus with praziquantel during pregnancy, during the exacerbation of chronic diseases and when diagnosed with oncology. People with severe liver damage, therapy is carried out with caution under the control of blood biochemistry. Children Biltritsid allowed only 4 years.
Due to the absence in the children's pharmacology of an effective remedy for getting rid of opisthorchiasis, in case of severe invasions, biltricid is also used in children under 4 years of age. Treatment of children in this case is carried out in a hospital under the supervision of a doctor.
Stage 3 - the final
It begins after the worms leave the body after treatment. Therapy is identical to the first stage. Additionally prescribed vitamins and immunomodulators.
Homemade recipes from opisthorchiasis
One of the most effective, safe and low-cost methods of getting rid of worms is home treatment according to the recipes of traditional medicine.The simplicity of the recipe of folk drugs will allow you to make them at home without any extra effort. Herbal ingredients that make up the recipe can be prepared by yourself or purchased in pharmacies.
The use of drugs with garlic relieves the body of opistorch eggs in record time. Garlic recipes are effective and safe.
- Garlic with milk. Bring to a boil a mixture of a glass of milk, 5 cloves of chopped garlic and 5 buds of cloves. Drink the composition warm, after a 10-minute infusion necessarily on an empty stomach three times a day. The course of treatment is from 1-1.5 weeks.
- Infusion of garlic for enemas. 3 garlic cloves chop and insist in a glass of boiling water. Introduce for 20 minutes in the rectum swab soaked in a warm infusion.
Preparations with garlic can, but with caution, be used for the treatment of opisthorchiasis in children.
You can get rid of opisthorchiasis with the help of herbs.
- Kvass from celandine leaves. Wrap a glass of chopped celandine leaves and a small piece of silicon in a gauze knot. In the jar to prepare a mixture of a glass of sugar, 2 tbsp. l sour cream and 2 liters of whey.Put the grass bundle into it. Kvass should be infused in a dark warm place until ready. Take 10 days ½ cup before meals.
- Burdock juice. Take in the morning for a week squeezed out of the leaves of the juice of 30 ml. The course must be repeated after 10 days.
- Dandelion infusion. A tablespoon of crushed leaves and roots brew a glass of boiling water. Drink 5-6 times a day instead of tea. In the same way you can prepare the infusion of Hypericum.
Birch tar treatment
In the treatment of opisthorchiasis folk methods successfully used drugs with birch tar. There are several approved treatment regimens.
- Begin treatment with two drops of tar, daily increasing the dose by 2 drops. After the 5th day, bringing the dose to 10 drops, they also begin to reduce the dose by 2 drops. The tar for consumption is dissolved in ½ cup of milk and drunk once a day in the morning. The treatment is carried out in 3 courses with 3-week breaks.
- Take tar from 1 drop to 10, daily increasing by 1 drop. From the 11th day, the intake is reduced in the reverse order. The tar for drinking is diluted with half a glass of water.
Tar according to these schemes can be dripped on a piece of apple, in carrot puree or mixed with honey. Used only for the treatment of adult patients.
Treatment of opisthorchiasis folk remedies well complements, but does not replace medication therapy. Home remedies have a minimum of contraindications and are approved for use not only adults but also children.
When treating a child, the dose of all drugs must be reduced by 2 times.
Preventing infection by fish parasites is always easier than curing. Prevention of opisthorchiasis mainly consists of preventing eggs from getting into the oral cavity. To do this, observe the temperature and time conditions of cooking fish.
|Steam and water boiling||Since boiling for at least 20 minutes|
|Frying in oil||Under the lid with a lot of fat 20 minutes|
|Meatballs||15 to 20 minutes.|
|Fish Pie||1 hour after warming up the oven|
|Salting||14 days (calculation of salt 1 kg per 5 kg of fish)|
|Hot smoked||Temperature above 70 degrees|
If you follow the rules of cooking, do not cut the finished products on the board for butchering raw fish and work your hands well, opisthorchosis is not a problem for humans. It must be remembered that the parasite enters the body only with the help of the host itself.