Description and photos of spiders in Crimea
People who come to rest in the Crimea are often interested in the question of what dangers can lie in wait for them besides crumbling cliffs and storms at sea. Those who are afraid of arachnids, very worried about which spiders of the Crimea can be really dangerous.
Among the real spiders in the Crimea there are few species with strong poison. Some arthropods are frightening in size, but harmless to humans.And this is for the best, since on the peninsula you can find representatives of all spider genera that live in the southern regions of Europe and a little bit of the northern ones.
Spiders that can cause serious harm to humans include only a few Crimean species with a strong poison. In order for a person to die from a spider bite, it is necessary that the arthropod's poison be an allergen to the victim. But a lot of trouble some of these animals can deliver. Sometimes a bite really leads to death, if you do not enter the serum in time.
Dangerous spiders found in Crimea:
- burial spider;
- black oresus;
- the steatod Paykull;
- South Russian tarantula.
On a note!
Until recently, the last species of spider in the Crimea is not met. It was discovered only in 2018.
Spider medium size, fairly common in the Crimea. Belongs to the family of black widows. The body size of the female is up to 2 cm. The size of the male is on average 6 mm. For humans, it is not dangerous.
Female abdomen spherical, shiny. Paws are relatively long. The paw span reaches 4 cm. The arthropod has a pure black color or black with red spots.
The female arranges for herself a home in the hollows under the stones, under the roots, in the holes of animals. Often creeps into the dwellings of man.
The spider is not aggressive. Attacks if disturbed.The female can attack, protecting the cocoons.
Of all the poisonous spiders of Crimea, karakurt is the most dangerous creature. Deaths after his bite are not as frequent as the legends say, but the pain is very serious.
On a note!
Verbal descriptions of karakurt and Paykulla steatods are very similar to each other. Due to the similarity of these two types of spiders are often confused with each other.
Burial Spider (Segestria florentina)
This species has a small area. The burial spider is found on the territory of the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the Black Sea region and in the Azov region. One of the largest spiders of the Crimea and the largest representative of its family. For life, prefers to choose forests. He lives in the forest floor, in the moss, on trees and under stones.
Body length about 2.5 cm. The shape is elongated. The paw span is about 5 cm. The abdomen is ellipsoidal and covered with thick short bristles. The head is 8 mm long and shiny. Bristle on cephalothoid rare. Chelicera are powerful and in size are half the length of the cephalothorax.
The color of the abdomen of a grave spider can be:
- gray-purple with dark spots;
- greyish brown;
- black with purple tint.
The head is black with a purple sheen. Chelicerae are greenish-bronze. Paws are monophonic, without dark rings.
A burial spider builds a funnel-shaped burrow. From the entrance pulls signal threads. When the victim approaches, he jumps out of the hole, grabs the prey with the chelicerators and immediately drags it into the hole. The object of spider hunting are large insects and small vertebrates.
On a note!
A mouse weighing 20 grams dies 3-30 minutes after being bitten.
By poisonousness, the spider is comparable to karakurt. In a bitten animal, its poison causes:
- increased excitability;
In humans, due to significantly greater body weight, the consequences will be less fatal. But pain in the muscles and significant swelling at the site of the bite are guaranteed.
Karakurt and the cellar are often confused because of the color, because of the entire description, people only have “black” in their memory.
Black Eresus (Eresus kollari)
The representative of the family Eresus. The second name is “black fathead”. Widely distributed throughout the Palearctic, but in Russia in some areas listed in the Red Book. Among the Crimean spiders listed recently, since 2018.This year, the black Orezus was found in the Crimea in the coastal-steppe zone.
This is a large spider, the body length of which is 3 cm in the female, 1 cm in the male. The name and the photo of the black Erezus do not coincide with each other a bit. And neither the "official" nor the people. The black fathead first of all striking the red color of the upper abdomen. There are 4 characteristic black dots in the square. The abdomen is egg-shaped. The sharp end of the egg is attached to the cephalothorax.
Head is larger than abdomen. Painted in black. Paws are black-red with white transverse stripes.
Captain arranges shelter in the voids under the stones in the burrows of beetles and other suitable places. During the life never leaves his refuge. Only youngsters at the settling stage and males in search of females come out of their holes.
It feeds on insects, arthropods and small lizards. Benefits hunting scolopendr and scorpions.
Females can fast up to 185 days, males up to 150 days.
Due to the size of the prey, the poison of Erezus is able to cause trouble to a person, although it does not cause death. At the moment of the bite there is a sharp pain.Later, numbness spreads from the wound. Pain on pressure at the site of the bite and stiffness in movement is felt for another 2-6 days.
Another name is false karakurt. Another arthropod inhabitant of the Crimea, which is often confused with the black widow. Lifestyle, size, appearance and in these two types are similar. Colors are similar only in color. There are no red spots on the Pikulla steatods. She has a red stripe, reminiscent of arrows connected to each other. The strip of arrows passes exactly in the middle of the abdomen. Direction: from the spider glands to the cephalothorax. There is also a circular red crescent in front of the abdomen.
The poison of steatods in human intensity and effectiveness is similar to wasp.
South Russian tarantula
He is a mizgir or an earth spider. Although the latter can be attributed to other species. Large arthropod gray. Leads nocturnal and can climb into the tent while people are sleeping.
On a note!
The length of the South Russian tarantula is about 3 cm. The body is elongated. Head is wider than abdomen. The toxicity is greatly exaggerated, but the hand of the bite may swell.
Since non-poisonous spiders do not exist in nature, in the Crimea they are also not. There are species that, when large in size, are not dangerous to humans, since their venom is too weak or chelators cannot bite through their skin. Some spiders, for example, a spider mate, are not at all able to hook human skin. Small spiders sitting in grapes hunt clusters of insects that decide to eat berries. Since the Crimea is one of the regions where grapes are grown on an industrial scale, there are expanses for such grape spiders.
These little spiders can only scare arachnophobes. But large spiders with a bright bright color are able to alert any person not familiar with them. These spiders in Crimea include:
- Argiope Brunnich;
- argyopa lobata;
- cross spider.
Due to the coloring, argiope is considered a dangerous spider. Krestovik can scare only in size.
Argiope Brunnicha (Argiope bruennichi)
Also argiope called spider-wasp because of the color of the abdomen. Argiopes belong to the spinning-web spiders, building nets in trees and shrubs.
Spiders are small in size: female up to 1.5 cm, male up to 5 mm. In both sexes, the belly is colored in black and yellow transverse stripes.But the female has a rounded abdomen. The male body shape is really very similar to the small wasp. These are arthropods common to Crimea, but the population is not as large as that of the crosses.
The bite of argyopa is quite painful. But it causes only short-term pain and local irritation at the site of the bite.
Another species that is found in the Crimea in small quantities. When looking at a spider, it seems that he is wearing a solid chitinous shell. But this is deceptive. In fact, argiope lobata has the same soft belly like other spiders. It looks like an armored monster because of the silvery-white color of the abdomen, “fitted” on the sides with 6 deep grooves. The color of the notches can be from dark to orange.
The body size of the female is up to 1.5 cm. Lobata builds nets in trees and shrubs. Poison for humans is not dangerous, although the bite is unpleasant.
Common Cross (Araneus diadematus)
The most common large spider in the Crimea. On its network, you can stumble everywhere: from high grass in the steppe to a tree on the Crimean yayla. He likes to settle in vineyards and gardens. There is more mining.
The body size of the female is 2-2.5 cm, the male is 1 cm.The female has a large, convex egg-shaped abdomen with an exaggeratedly sharp tip. The “blunt” end of the “egg” connects to the cephalothorax. The male abdomen "flattened", elongated and narrow. The head is round and wider than the abdomen.
Color krestovikov can be in a yellow-white or gray-white. On the back is a characteristic cross-shaped pattern, for which the spiders got the name.
On a note!
The bite of a krestovik is weaker than a mosquito and cannot harm. The spider cannot even bite through the skin of a 6-year-old child, but it is able to explain to the mischievous that it is not necessary to hunt funny "Crusaders".
Who is solpuga ordinary
First of all, it is a Red Book animal. Therefore, no matter how terribly solpugi looked, you do not need to kill her. Although this arthropod could be shot in horror movies without makeup.
On a note!
The Crimean solpuga has two more names: the South Russian solpuga and the ordinary galeod (Galeodes araneoides). This is not a spider. It has neither poisonous nor spider glands. Solpuga refers to the order of phalanges.
Externally, it really looks like a huge spider up to 6 cm in size. The color is yellow-brown, the color of dry grass and fallen leaves.On the Crimean land is difficult to detect solpugu.
The truly dangerous inhabitants of Crimea serve as food for salpuga: skolopendry and scorpions. In addition to them, the animal preys on spiders, termites, wood lice. Do not hesitate to small lizards.
It does not suck up food, but rubs it with mandibles. For this reason, a salpugi bite can be dangerous: particles of rotting flesh remain on the mandibles, causing a person to become infected with sepsis.